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social factors affecting health and illness

发布日期:2021-01-09       作者:       字号:正常

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Pfizer-BioNTech’s coronavirus vaccine for emergency use in the United States. The Behavioral and Social Sciences and the Practice of Medicine, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-409-95140-0.50028-5. This article was contributed by familydoctor.org editorial staff. But it’s not just how you live that determines how healthy you are. A. Mechanic D. (1986) Social Factors Affecting the Mental Health of the Elderly. Social Determinants of Health: How Social and Economic Factors Affect Health 3 While the previous scenario is fictional, unfortunately it is all too plausible. Above are just a few of the social determinants of health that can affect your health and well-being. Most aspects of mental illness and psychological well‐being are influenced by social factors (such as gender, social class, race and ethnicity, and household patterns) and social institutions (such as disability and social security systems, labor markets, and health care organizations). Neighborhood conditions are an important part of housing and can also affect your health. COVID-19 is highly contagious and does not yet have an approved vaccine. This could include whether we smoke, exercise, or eat a balanced diet. Psychological factors influence not just the experience of health and illness, but also health behaviours. A neighborhood that is free from violence, crime, and pollution gives children and adults a safe place for physical activity. Jerry Tew is Senior Lecturer in Social Work, Institute of Applied Social Studies, University of Birmingham. A crucial premise in the study of illness behaviour is that illness, as well as illness experience, is shaped by sociocultural and social-psychological factors, irrespective of their genetic, physiological Factors affecting health, the social and economic conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age, are called the social determinants of health. There are many others. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Social Determinants of Health, U.S. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion: Social Determinants of Health. What can I do to improve a given factor in my life so that my health improves. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Social Factors Affecting Health, Illness, and Treatment. Mechanic D (1977) Illness behavior, social adaptation, and the management of illness: a comparison of educational and medical models. They include: 1. Social isolation and loneliness can affect the physical and mental health of older adults, including those with cognitive impairment. Being surrounded by all of these things helps you live a healthier life. They have more access to grocery stores and healthy foods. People can feel socially excluded for a number of different reasons. Not being able to get health care can have a huge impact on your health. Several psychological factors including stress, behavior due to chronic pain, depression, and cultural beliefs can have adverse affects on the body’s physical condition. Access to clean water and working utilities (electricity, sanitation, heating, and cooling). Some people don’t have transportation to go to the doctor. These factors affect your ability to take part in healthy behaviors, and this affects your health. This exclusion can have an effect on their health and ability to fulfil their full potential. Manuela Silva a; Adriana Loureiro b and Graça Cardoso a. a Chronic Diseases Research Centre (CEDOC), NOVA Medical School Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa. Language and other communication capabilities. It can be seen as a state of mental health that allows one to flourish and fully enjoy life. Also known as social and physical determinants of health, they impact a wide range of health, functioning, and quality-of-life outcomes.Examples of social determinants include: 1. BILOGICAL FACTORS ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS 2. Factors affecting mental health Good mental health is more than just the absence of mental illness. People who are continually exposed to poor living conditions have a higher risk of developing health problems. It encompasses our social, physiological and emotional states; someone who has good mental health may feel balanced in these areas of their life. Compared with those who do not have a mental health issue, people aged between 16 and 74 with a common mental health condition are more likely to: 1. be women (59%) 2. be aged between 35 and 54 (45% compared with 38%) 3. be divorced (14% compared with 7%) 4. to live alone (20% compared with 16%) 5. be a one parent family (9% compared with 4%) 6. not have a formal qualification (31% compared with 27%) 7. be a tenant of a housing association or a local authority (26% compared with 15%)1. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. We’re working hard to tackle social exclusion and help make health fairer for everyone. These factors plus some others apparently provide a set of norms that influence and often direct the person's decisions and subsequent health and illness behavior [ 27 ]. Other factors like education and employment also influence health because it gives a person purpose and also teaches them what healthy practices are. His publications include Social Perspectives in Mental Health (Jessica Kingsley, 2005) and Working with Mental Distress: A Social Approach (Palgrave Macmillan, 2011). Symptoms may include a cough, a fever,…, It can be hard to know what’s true about COVID-19. 4. Social factors not only affect life expectancy, but the possibilities the one will experience diseases and in turn, the health … in treatment. This information provides a general overview and may not apply to everyone. Agreeableness has been shown to be related to better health behavior, while lower levels of this trait have been associated with increased mortality risk (Booth-Kewley & Vickers, 1994 ; see also Wiebe & Fortenberry, 2006 ). These are called social determinants of health. They are less likely to participate in unhealthy activities, such as smoking. Health psychology focuses on how biological, social and psychological factors influence health and illness. 1. making decisions about smoking cessation based on beliefs about health and belief in one’s own ability to make changes. These conditions can influence the health and well-being of you and your community. Here are some examples of major social factors that can influence your health. 5. Conditions such as pests, mold, structural problems, and toxins in the home can all affect your health. Social stressors, such as exposure to violence. As you can see, health is not a simple thing. Access to nutritious foods. Natural environment B. Portugal. Religion which has a bearing on the socio-cultural patterns of living involving age old habits, customs and traditions affecting cleanliness, eating clothing, childcare and almost every detail of daily living. These trips can include screenings and preventive care that keep you from developing chronic disease. Education gives you the tools you need to make good decisions about your health. The social determinants of health are the economic and social conditions that influence individual and group differences in health status. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. There are many others. Family and other social support. Another determinant is our individual behavior. 3. This chapter discusses how different social factors influence the decisions that are made at each stage of the process of health and illness. There is a social gradient across many of these determinants that contribute to health with poorer individuals experiencing worse health outcomes than people who are better off. Since the mid 1980s, the understanding that these determinants of health are Gender. Factors influencing health 1. They are more likely to live in safe neighborhoods. All of these things add up to better health. It is important that your home is safe and free from hazards like these. Each aspect effects an individual in various different ways producing negative and positive outcomes, more commonly referred to as health detriments (Brooker and Waugh, 2007). People from lower socio-economic backgrounds may suffer from poor nutrition and water and air related diseases. Social determinants of health reflect the social factors and physical conditions of the environment in which people are born, live, learn, play, work, and age. These are called determinants of health. Extraversion has been related to better health and well-being, and has also been linked to health behaviors, but in a diverse way (Taylor et al., 2009). 8. These factors all have an effect on each other, to demonstrate the interactions between the biological, psychological and social aspects … At times, one social characteristic may play a dominant role, however, a combination of factors must be considered in understanding a patient and the choices one may make. There are many aspects affecting health and how a person experiences health or illness. The U.S., despite spending far more on medical care than any other country in the world, has poorer health outcomes than most other de … Your education level can have an effect on how healthy you are. Downstream factors (which may be shaped by upstream factors) include unhealthy diets, lack of exercise, and smoking. Social and economic factors can influence and impact on an individual’s state of health vastly. Most factors that do influence health also interact or accumulate, for example age can affect the choices we make in life, and the choices that one makes and the behaviours they carry out can determine how long that person may live. 2. T he previous chapters of this report focused on health systems and individual and household-level risks that might explain the U.S. health disadvantage, but it has been increasingly recognized that these health determinants cannot be fully understood (or influenced) in isolation from the environmental contexts that shape and sustain them. The amount of money you make has an effect on your health. Pathogenic micro-organism. This can have a direct effect on your health. Occupation and job security. Housing can contribute to your health when it provides you with a safe place to be. Social determinants of health are the conditions that we live, learn, work, and play in. People with higher incomes tend to be healthier and live longer than people with low incomes. Read about research on risk factors and solutions. Upstream social factors that have repeatedly been linked with important health outcomes in many populations include income, accumulated wealth, educational attainment, and experiences based on racial or ethnic identification. If you have health insurance, you are more likely to visit your doctor on a regular basis. Social status (how integrated or isolated you are from others). Health is influenced by a number of factors which exist within the individual and the society. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. factors are oen split betwe en social determinants whi ch include factors related to the soci al, economic and physical environment s uch as: social exclusion, neighbo urhood condions, and income; and psychological deter minants which mainly focus on inter nal factors related to emoon Continuing anxiety, insecurity, low self-esteem, social isolation and lack of control over work and home life, have powerful effects on health. In: Häfner H., Moschel G., Sartorius N. (eds) Mental Health in the Elderly. Education also tends to lead to higher-paying jobs. The Biopsychosocial modal of health care as developed by Engel (J.Ogden, 2012) takes into account the connections between the Biological, Psychological and Social factors. A patient's social characteristics can influence each stage in his progress from the development and definition of an illness through the final stages of rehabilitation and return to health. Variables affecting illness behaviour usually come into play well before any medical scrutiny and treatment (Mechanic, 1978). But not everyone has access to health insurance or easy access to care. The broad social and economic circumstances that together influence health throughout the life course are known as the ‘social determinants of health’. They are more likely to face situations that can lead to poor health. The social factors found especially influential in decisions to seek health care include sex (more women than men seek care) ethnicity, and family orientation and composition [1,4,18,19,27,36,38]. 6. Having a lower income also affects your ability to have affordable health insurance and health care. These often come with benefits, such as health insurance, healthier working conditions, and the opportunity to make connections with other people. Ethnicity and culture. How easy it is for you to access health care is a big determinant of your health. You may hear conflicting reports from different sources. 7. Above are just a few of the social determinants of health that can affect your health and well being. Children growing up in more deprived areas often suffer disadvantages throughout their lives, from educational attainment through to employment prospects, which in turn affe… People with more education are more likely to live longer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Social and physical environments have a big impact on our health, too. A Bio-psycho-social model attempts toconsider a number of factors that might contribute toor affect mental illness, in three main categories:1.Biological factors (physiology and biochemistry,and genetic inheritance)2.Psychological factors (emotional experience,interpersonal interactions and the person’supbringing)3.Social factors (related to cultural backgroundand current life situation). Where you live has a significant impact on your health. Language and other communication capabilities. Access to clean water and working utilities (electricity, sanitation, heating, and cooling). All of these things can prevent someone from getting the health care they need and delay treatment of preventable problems. Biologic hereditary factors (genetics). The patient's progress through each of the stages and the choices he makes at each stage are influenced by his particular combination of social characteristics. People with low incomes are more likely to live in a community of poverty. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 7 Physical and Social Environmental Factors. Here…, Social and Cultural Factors that Can Influence Your Health, Know the Facts About Coronavirus (COVID-19). They are more likely to participate in healthy activities like exercising and seeing their doctor regularly. From the recognition of initial symptoms through the decision to seek care, and the encounter with health care deliverers, to the final stage of health maintenance, the patient's social context plays an important role in the choices that he makes. They usually have more access to safe spaces for exercise or other activities. One kind of determinant of health is what is in our genes and our biology. Many people assume that their health is a result of their genes, their behaviors, and how often they get sick or go to the doctor. So, he concluded that social solidarity was a form of protection against the drive to commit suicide. This can affect how often, if ever, you go to the doctor. Differences in health and sickness are marked among the people living in rural and urban areas. They include: Any and all of these factors play into your health on a daily basis. Copyright © 1978 Butterworth (Publishers) Inc. Social determinants of mental health: a review of the evidence . Availability of resources to meet daily needs, such as educational and job opportunities, living wages, or healthful foods 2. These can include unsafe housing, more challenges in getting healthy food, and less time for exercise or physical activity. The health service are also accountable for influencing factors of health and illness. Some can’t afford it, while others speak a different language. Such psychosocial risks accumulate during life and increase the chances of poor mental health and premature death. A thriving neighborhood also offers employment, transportation, and good schools. Early childhood social and physical environments, including childcare. A home that is close to grocery stores makes it easier for families to buy and eat healthy foods. It is important to understand how these things affect your health so you can take steps to improve them and improve your health. Portugal b Centre of Studies on Geography and Spatial Planning (CEGOT), University of Coimbra. drinking more due to stress, or proactive, e.g. The important factors which deter­mine health are: 1) heredity 2) environment 3) life-style 4) socio – economic conditions 5) health services 6) health related systems. The important thing for our purposes is not his findings as such but the relationship which sociological analysis enables us to draw between social structures and individual behaviours and how this can be applied to health and illness. Impact of Social Factors on Health The Public Network for Health Equity in Israel July 2011 Health is more than just medical care: in Israel, large health gaps exist between different social and population groups. Copyright © American Academy of Family Physicians. They can include things like your education level, your exposure to violence, the way your community is designed, and if you have access to health care. Thes… Talk to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to get more information on this subject. In encountering the patient, the practitioner engages at once a total person with the biological, physiological, psychological, and social processes blended in the patient. Social environment C. Lifestyle 4. There are many factors that influence our health. This video from ‘Mental Health at Work’ helps us to understand what mental health is, what factors affect our mental health and the possible variances of our mental health states at any given time. This influence can be reactive, e.g. Other factors Age Gender Growth and development 3. Depression. When Social Issue Affects One’s Health “Healthy individuals cannot survive when society is sick.” On the other hand, aspects of social structure influence health and illness. Early childhood social and physical environments, including childcare. Factors may include poverty, old age, mental ill-health or a physical or learning disability. Growing economic inequality serves to exacerbate the disparities in health. Health psychologists study how patients handle illness, why some people don’t follow medical advice and the most effective ways to control pain or change poor health habits. Psychological factors can influence physical health either indirectly, by changing behaviors that affect your health, such as eating, sleeping and socializing, ... it can take away from the sensation of feeling good and exacerbate the negative effects of an illness. 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